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Intracerebral Hemorrhage
(Hemorrhagic Stroke)

Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) is the medical term for bleeding in the brain tissue. This is by far the most common type of brain bleeding and it mostly occurs in older adults with small vessel diseases of the brain but ICH can be seen in all age groups.

Microbleeds, Superficial Siderosis, White Matter Disease

Microbleeds and superficial siderosis are tiny brain bleeds whereas white matter disease originates from chronic low blood flow in deeper brain regions. These pathologies, all related to diseases of brain's small vessels, increase one's risk of brain bleeding. 

Subdural Hemorrhage

Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is bleeding in outer layers around the brain that usually requires surgical intervention. SDH might be related to trauma but they can also occur spontaneously. The latter, called Chronic SDH, is mostly seen in older adults and it is an increasingly common problem. 




Brain bleeds are medical emergencies that can result into disability or death. Prevention is important.


There are different types of brain bleeds, each associated with different risk factors, requiring special preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The most common types are reviewed in this website and detailed information can be obtained by clicking the links.


This website aims to provide patient centered information on prevention, diagnosis, acute management, rehabilitation and other issues that can help people who either had or are at risk of having a brain bleed.


A very common problem is the need to use blood thinners for concurrent medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation or atherosclerosis. Better understanding of the risk of brain bleeding is very important for patients who either suffered one or who have MRI markers of high risk (microbleeds, superficial siderosis, white matter disease). In such patients, the risks/benefits of blood thinners and potential alternatives can be discussed to decide optimal management.


This website aims to answer general questions about brain bleeds and address common scenarios that patients and their caregivers face. The hope is to raise awareness of the particular issues and facilitate the discussion of patients/caregivers with their healthcare providers to enhance shared decision making. 

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding in the space immediately surrounding the brain. About 85% of these brain bleeds are related to rupture of an aneurysm that forms in a blood vessel. SAH requires fairly specialized treatments that will be discussed. 

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA)

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy is a condition characterized by accumulation of pathological amyloid beta proteins in superficial brain vessels. CAA is a common cause of bleeding into the brain tissue in older adults and it is associated with a high risk of hemorrhage recurrence. This condition and its implications will be discussed in detail.

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